Week 1: Introduction

Introduction to the Energy-Agriculture Nexus

As the world’s population is continuously growing, demands for food and energy increases considerably. The United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) estimates that by 2050 current food production needs to rise by 70 percent to satisfy the expanding demand (FAO, 2011).

Given the planetary boundaries, especially limited energy and water resources, meeting this target is one of the century’s biggest challenges.  At the same time millions of farmers and processors in developing countries and emerging economies lack access to clean energy technologies for irrigation, drying, cooling, storage and other processes. “How can these needs be met sustainably?” In 8 units, the MOOC aims to contribute finding answers to this very question.

The first week is arranged as an introduction – intended to provide a preface to the Energy-Agriculture Nexus while familiarizing everyone with the course platform and the MOOC community. The course is then divided into three incremental parts: technical chapters (week 2-4), economic chapters (week 5-7) and the summary.  But before we get ahead of ourselves, let’s look at the course material for this week, your tasks and – last but not least – get to know one another.

Check out the ‘Intro-Videos’:

The “Powering Agriculture: An Energy Grand Challenge for Development” Partners introduce you to the Energy-Agriculture Nexus and explain their intention for developing this MOOC together with TH Köln.


Prof. Bhandari, TH Köln – University of Applied Sciences, gives an overview of the MOOC curriculum and structure.

Immerse into the Energy-Agriculture Nexus – the status quo, current challenges and possible solutions – with this week’s mandatory reading: ‘Introduction to the Energy-Agriculture Nexus’.

Don’t forget to put your knowledge to the test while earning the first ‘Week Badge’ with this week’s Quiz!



 Add your comment
  1. Profile photo of Adeniyi Afolayan

    Food production taking up to a third of available energy!!! Amazing.

    • Profile photo of Tony Ozii

      It makes sense with the burgeoning demand place on industry by the population its a wonder its not more. In fact, it is more than a third if you factor in the energy used to destroy the produced food.

    • Profile photo of Tony Ozii

      It makes sense with the burgeoning demand place on industry by the population it’s a wonder its not more. In fact, it is more than a third if you factor in the energy used to destroy the produced food.

    • Profile photo of Kamal M. Ibrahim

      Yes Adeniyi. In countries like Nigeria, it sounds very amazing because we mostly rely on subsistence and low level farming with very little technology.
      In more advanced countries like US, Israel, Germany, Sweden, France and much of Europe however, there is very high scale energy intensive agricultural production.
      So, on a global scale, it happens.

      • Profile photo of olumide sanu

        Very true Kamal. The high level agricultural technology or Highly Mechanized Agriculture, is the main reason behind the high level of agricultural productivity in these developed nations. The only major challenge, which is now a common challenge to all is the Energy Challenge, and this is why this MOOC is informed and very timely.
        Again, Kamal, thanks for the follow-up on this platform. Looking forward to more interactions together.

      • Profile photo of Fidel Emilio Joao

        In developing countries, 80% of the population is farming while in developed countries only 5% of the population is farming. But those farmers from developed countries are able to feed their local population and even to export.

        • Profile photo of Olubunmi Martins

          The challenge for developing countries is even more intensive as we have to grapple with technology as the underlying factor for increased productivity in agriculture as well as energy.
          I wish an action plan agenda will be developed by participants to address the peculiar or multiple challenge of developing countries

  2. Profile photo of Abdulmutalib Yussuff

    This paints a bold picture of energy-water-food nexus…..very interesting!

  3. Profile photo of Abdulmutalib Yussuff

    What motivated the study on energy needs of rice, milk, and vegetables? Are these the 3 top energy-intensive agro value-chains?

  4. Profile photo of Katrin Backhaus

    I did not know that rice farming produces such a lage share of the world’s methan emissions

  5. Profile photo of Janet Awopole Yepakeh Tiah

    Looking forward to next week! All new to me yet very interesting.

  6. Profile photo of Rusirevi Jonathan

    The study on energy needs on the three value chains rice, milk and vegetables, what promoted the three are they easily scalable because dairy out of the has the highest energy demands compared to the three lets share our experience.

    • Profile photo of Joshua Locke

      It could simply be the fact that they are such staple and widely used food groups in the world today, and that they all demonstrate serious environmental impacts; rice and dairy are both linked with methane emissions, and are highly water intensive. Vegetables tend to be highly pesticide and chemical fertilizer intensive.

    • Profile photo of PoweringAg

      The three value chains present representative examples and were chosen for their diversity.
      Milk production is resource intensive in terms of energy inputs and water consumption all along the value chain. There are particularly large differences in energy use in the post-harvest stages of milk production.
      Rice production is resource intensive in terms of energy and water all along the value chain but it varies with the ecosystem and farm size.
      Tomotatoes, beans and carrots have been selected as exemplary vegetable value chains for their widespread production, nutritional value, and suitability for further processing (e.g. canning, drying, cooling, and deep freezing).

  7. Profile photo of Katherinne Benavides Cortes

    Very good introduction !!, it is very interesting that the Energy-Agriculture Nexus covering topics such as innovation, social inclusion, economic development, governance and protection environmental.

  8. Profile photo of Nawa Sililo

    It is interesting how energy is used in the value chains and how soil is depleted in the course of years. We really need to change our behaviour towards energy consumption. The introdcution is an eye opener.

  9. Profile photo of Chimaobi Nna

    Nice initiative. Great lessons so far. Interesting statistics too about how much energy food production takes up. Look forward to more discoveries.

  10. Profile photo of Manuel Alejandro Sánchez Olvera

    Well, let’s begin this interestinf course! Congrats:D

  11. Profile photo of Sibel Raquel Ersoy

    Innovative and efficient technologies reduce obviously the energy demand. So, renewable energies will contribute to a more efficient energy usage. Nevertheless, lowering energy intensity will build on our behavioural changes. It is our awareness of the tremendous challenges that can change something.

  12. Profile photo of Majiga Katsande

    Energy is big issue especially in developing countries where we should be turning to renewable energy because fossil fuels and even hydro electric in the case of Kariba are not reliable.

  13. Profile photo of Chimaobi Omeye

    This is awesome especially for Nigeria and the rest of Africa as they really need to divert to renewable energy sources.

  14. Profile photo of George Mbaka Ebechue

    If the road map to take Cameroon to emerging country by 2035 is industrialization of Agriculture then it must be done in a sustainable way. As such using renewable energy to power the sector will be the best option.

  15. Profile photo of Ian Cole

    In Guyana, the focus is now shifting towards the idea of a green economy. But we are starting from scratch. There is hardly any existing policy on energy which includes RE use and no existing legislation to take into consideration the grid tie mechanisms, net billing etc. The only good thing so far is the the import duty is removed from the RE type equipment. Well its a start but for people in agriculture the challenges go way beyond removal of taxes because there are no one using RE technologies in the field of agriculture in Guyana. Instead farmers are steeped in traditional ( and destructive) practices such as slash and burn techniques etc. This course I hope will help me to contribute to changing this. I am an electrical engineer but I am a farmer too, so this is close to my heart.

  16. Profile photo of Sarah M. Edelman

    What makes me upset is how in developed countries, food goes to waste and in undeveloped countries, there’s not enough food being produced. In the same breath, there are starving people in developed countries and yet, 40% of food is wasted here in the US. The scales of food availability are tipping in an unfair direction.

    Why is this important? Because with the food waste comes wasted energy, wasted water, wasted time, etc. With the global population increasing at an alarming rate, we don’t have many chances left at saving our planet for the not-so-future generations.

  17. Profile photo of Cloffas Nyagumbo

    What l really enjoy is the deliberate attempt to bring the agriculture and energy sector innovations together for the good of humanity. For my country Zimbabwe and Africa at large, communal/small-scale farmers are starting to benefit from clean energy options such as solar and biogas but what l see to be the greatest limiting factor besides knowledge is the initial cost of investment. If financing is not embedded to jump start adoption of clean energy solutions, uptake will continue to be slow and farmers will continue to track back to firewood.
    Am really keen to learn more…..

  18. Profile photo of Joseph Kirule

    It is great to see that lead organizations have partnered to facilitate this knowledge exchange and some pilot projects on the ground. Much of Sub Saharan Africa is dependent on biomass energy for their subsistence and commercial survival, which biomass is majorly either backyard, farm (agro) sourced, forest harvested. Many farmers are already traditionally relying on their gardens for firewood e.g, maize, millet, sorghum and bean stalks. This is mainly because of the population pressure that has led to deforestation in search for more land for settlement and agriculture, leaving little to no forest stock to provide firewood. this has a toll on land productivity as nutrients are not recouped. Every farmer is hungry for some form of intervention as soon or later they hit a dead end. I am enjoying the discussions already.

  19. Profile photo of Sibel Raquel Ersoy

    I didn´t know that there are so many differences between developed and developing countries regarding the food losses along agricultural value chains. The food losses in developed countries are much higher in the consumption comparing to the losses in developing countries which are in the production!

  20. Profile photo of Kwabena Agyei  Danso

    and i thought agriculture has no relation with climate change. very refreshing learning even agriculture has a tow on climate change.

  21. Profile photo of MUHUMUZA ALOIZIOUS

    In order to have sustainability in place, the health of the soil has to be maintained. this is only possible if organic agriculture is promoted at all levels of production. this involves the use of natural fertilizers such as cow dung manure, Farm yard manure, plant teas, and also bio rationals for control of pests and diseases. these may include: neem extracts, red paper extracts, among others. in the same way, it helps reduce the use of artificial energies such as fertilizers which would otherwise increase the costs of production of which a poor resource farmer can not afford.

    • Profile photo of Michael Osei-Antwi

      This is a tricky one. If a poor resource farmer cannot afford inorganic fertilizer, then the next best option would have to be the use of organic fertilizer which is readily available to them. Why are they not using the organic fertilizer????
      For the poor farmer to use an inorganic fertilizer will require the government to heavily subsidize it. This however is not a smart move because it only goes to benefit the commercial farmer who on the other hand who have had the money to buy it at an unsubsidized price. In my opinion, organic fertilizer should be targeted at the commercial farmers to decrease their dependency on inorganic fertilizer. This could be done by the government providing some incentives to the commercial farmer to cut down on the use of inorganic fertilizer.

  22. Profile photo of ugbizi ogar

    I am really looking forward to building business models on this mooc!

  23. Profile photo of Irene Nguthuku

    Sarah is very right. One other major challenge currently is food waste which is a waste of the very scarce resources.

  24. Profile photo of Nellisa Samichand

    Agriculture plays an important part in the lively hood of many Guyanese but with little or no technology advancement in this field we are going down a terrible path in not efficiently utilizing valuable resources (e.g water, fuel, etc) I’m happy to learn so much so far and will share my knowledge with other farmers and help to make a positive impact in my community and eventually to the entire country.

  25. Profile photo of Mr. Anthony Madume

    I have listened carefully to the two videos above and found them very insightful and informative. The contents clearly prepares all course participants with the relevant information and tools, and the course material equips us all to undertake some innovative energy and energy efficiency range of products. This course has the potential to enable us gain awareness, address the challenges of powering-agriculture (in Africa) and other developing economies. I have no doubt that many of the course participants will be driven to undertake creative and sustainable ideas that will help enhance agricultural production.

  26. Profile photo of Malcolm O'Brien

    I see that fuel consumption on transportation of producst is one of the key issues. Does anyone now if they are using any electric vehicles? For instance: Having solar charging stations(spaced out, depending on the distanse per charge) with a vehicles already charged. They could just tranfer cargo or switch a trailer to a charged truck, leaving the one you came with to be charged.
    Any thoughts?

  27. Profile photo of Liswaniso Mukela

    Very excited to be part of the course. Anyone else participating from Zambia?

  28. Profile photo of Nicholas Amartey

    Great reading your comments. Very insightful. Excited to be participating in this course.

  29. Profile photo of John Mwibanda Wesonga

    Eureka. Done with quiz 1. That was an experience.

  30. Profile photo of Kokou LAGASSOU

    It’s very excited to be here and share experiences by leaning.

  31. Profile photo of edison sempiira

    Insightful comments. Very excited to be apart of the next Energy – food Nexus experts.

    Renewable energy seems to be the target as a potential to provide for food production in a sustainable manner. do we have studies that directly quantify carbon foot print from particular renewable sources compared to non renewable ones?

  32. Profile photo of Nawa Sililo

    Edison, that is a very good question that made me to think. If I can remember in school. I was given a research on the environment-how man’s activities are affecting the eco-system. As students, we never went into details to find out more. It all remained a theory. I am really not sure if they are some studies especially in my country where they directly quantify carbon foot print. I am only aware that Energy Regulation Boards calculate Carbon emissions.

  33. Profile photo of Mr. Anthony Madume

    Hello Edison and Nawa,

    In response to your briefs above, I wish to add that I have no doubt that there will be data records (with the relevant government dept / bodies) that compare renewable carbon foot prints with non-renewable technologies (bio-fuels, fussel fuels, etc). Additionally, carbon emissions are already been calculated and are traded as carbon credits by various governments. Unfortumately, I can’t refer you both to the materials at this stage. But let me think of sources as the course progresses. However, good points to raise on this forum.

    • Profile photo of Nawa Sililo

      Hello Mr. Anthony

      Thank you for your comment and hearing that carbon emissions are calculated. I will wait for more information as the course progresses.

      • Profile photo of PoweringAg

        @esempiira @nawa @amadume


        Interesting discussion! As you already pointed out this is quite a complex issue – on which you also find quite different numbers and opinions. It will be addressed in Week 4 of this MOOC in the lecture about energy efficiency and life cycle assessment. In that week we will also publish material and links that will contribute to your discussion. In the meantime: Why don’t you start a discussion in the new Community Forum?



        • Profile photo of Nawa Sililo


          Thank you for following up our discussions. I have a concern regarding the technical system. It does not show feedback when one has commented on an issue. If I did not scroll down, I would have not known that you have actually posted this comment. If something can be done on feedback, I will appreciate a lot.

  34. Profile photo of Bernard CONILH de BEYSSAC

    I do feel uncomfortable with the use of the term “modern”… I don’t even understand if it is “good” or “bad”. Sometimes the connotation seems positive but when we look at all the damage and non sustainability of what we usually consider as a “modern agriculture” it is reasonable to think that “modern agriculture” is not a good thing. Organic agriculture, very often, is just about going back to “traditional practices” built on centuries of observation and traditional knowledge… and we want to think that organic farming is part of “modern agriculture”… quite confusing and a bit “ethnocentric” no?

    In the script agriculture is presented as a “climate change problem” with some solutions… but agriculture can also be a climate change solution (carbon sequestration, shade, micro-climatology…) but this is not really addressed yet. I hope it will be addressed later on as climate change mitigation solution AND also on energy efficiency solutions.

    For what we abusively call “global value chains” I think we should emphasize more on the real social and environmental costs (not only carbon print) of agro-input production and distribution as well as processed food packaging and distribution. Does it make really economic (not only business) sense to produce inputs in one corner of the world, ship it in another corner to be (mis) used for crop production, then having ago-output exported in another corner to be processed and packaged and reshipped in another corner to be consumed or wasted?

  35. Profile photo of Bernard CONILH de BEYSSAC

    By reading the different documentation I am wondering if we are not discovering something that farmers knew a long time ago: Farming is NOT about producing food but it is a much more complex “business”. It is about:

    1- producing and consuming food… first food production and second production for markets (even in “industrialized economies or developed countries)
    2- producing and consuming inputs (seeds and organic fertilizers)..; we are readopting organic farming since synthetic and oil-based input production is not sustainable anymore
    3- producing and consuming energy… producing biomass fuel and recycling wastes
    4- producing and consuming natural resources (soil and water)… we also talk about environmental services or farming: protecting underground water stocks and watersheds, maintaining soil fertility and functionality (biomass and biodiversity)
    (- producing and using knowledge & information… agribusinesses need as much information on farmers than farmers need information on agribusinesses since a market is NOT just a “demand” but also an “offer”.

    Modern “nexused” approaches to food, energy and water will just tell farmers to do what they use to do for thousand years, adopting more contemporary tools and equipment.

    • Profile photo of PoweringAg


      Interesting! Why don’t you start a Topic in the new Community Forum?



    • Profile photo of Joseph Kirule

      Very true Bernard!
      While looking at the nexus, it is actually crucial to take stock of local knowledge then. The new interventions thus need to be built on the already existing positives. This will not only take us along way in achieving quick results but also will guarantee adoption among our target groups.

    • Profile photo of Kofi  Debrah

      This is spot on, I totally agree, the more research I do with farmers especially small holder farmers leads me to the same conclusion. They know this already. It’s actually up to people like us who are perhaps closer to finance and understand the process to acquiring it to be humbled and learn these ancient practices from the farmers.

    • Profile photo of Bernard Da Costa Thompson

      While I agree with you that we maybe reinventing the wheel, it however must be stressed that the emphasis now is on the most efficient use of the natural resources we have been using for year in some form or the other in our daily lives. growing up we grew the cassava, harvested and grated the produce and allowed the sun to do the drying process. Efficiency is now the watchword in agricultural value chain.

  36. Profile photo of Kabir Lawal

    There are a number of renewable energy technologies out there. My challenge is how does one deploy such technologies to smallholder farmers in a sustainable manner (given that the farmers are quite poor)? I mean sustainable in the sense that development funding will not last forever and not every single farmer can benefit from development funding.

  37. Profile photo of Kabir Lawal

    Bernard, I agree to some extent. Markets are about demand and supply. In addition, there are external agents that affect individual markets; rules and regulations from local and international policies as well as supporting functions such as other complementary lines of business (packaging, logistics etc).
    Farmers today cannot keep thinking as they used to due to the effect of their activities on the climate and the demand for their products being created by the swelling population. thus the need for a paradigm shift to a more sustainable form of agribusiness where the same or less resources used today will produce more output.

  38. Profile photo of Cloffas Nyagumbo

    Interesting thoughts Benard and Kabir!!!
    Indeed whilst most of the solutions were used long back, such as composting & manuring, water harvesting, erosion mgt and use of solar, l still feel efficiency was lacking. With in-depth understanding of these interconnected systems, productivity can be enhanced with a more conscious approach on the future environment

  39. Profile photo of Mr. Anthony Madume

    Dear Bernard, Kabir and Cloffas,

    Good afternoon. Frankly, I simply want to say that your thoughts / contributions are are preen cisely what this online course calls for – learning from each other. It is natural that we would see things from difference lenses / angles, and with our critical minds, we shall hopefully make well informed dicisions for the betterment of our communities, nations, Africa and the world at large. However, In wish to add that Bernard obvious raised some very important points that we shouldn’t over look – the basic farming methods have taken us (developed and developing countries) this far and had produced that sustained the world, despite the hunger, poverty and mal-nutrition that still exist today. The issues mentioned above are cases that the world leaders / government / institutions must address to tackle the increasing growth in population. That said, I must also stress that farmers in the developing countries should beprovided with adequate training that would equip and empower that with the relevent skills on new technologies and farming methods. I strongly believe these would boost their knowledge, good practices ansd exercise effecrtive initiative when farming. The point I have raised here applies to all farmers in respective of the scale and/or financial positions. I believe government support would be beneficial to them, particularly on the use of energy efficiency methods and waste reduction during harvesting and processing. The believe the gathering of infornation, the right data, collation and analysis will improve knowledge and stratetic planning of agricutural programmes in develeoping countries, and help us feed our people. In Africa as in other developing countries, young graduates qualifying in agriculture, agric-economics, and agricultural enginneerin, so there every need for a shift in mind set if we are to move forward or catch-up with developed countries. My addition / contribution is by no means exhauisive.

  40. Profile photo of Sonigitu Ekpe

    Happy to be part of this fantastic learning campus. Hope to share and network we all the knowledgeable facilitators and students.

  41. Profile photo of Sebastian Kunze

    Really like the given material! Well designed and written as well as informative.

    Some of my lecturers at the University might take a look at it to learn one or two things from it! ; )

  42. Profile photo of Wendy Simons

    My part of the US is blessed with a very diverse agricultural sector and many ecologically-minded farmers, yet incorporating more renewable energy and increasing energy efficiency in the food sector is still a challenge, especially with the large fluctuations in fossil fuel prices. I look forward to hearing more from everyone about ways that farmers raising specific crops/livestock in different countries are having success and overcoming challenges. What kinds of programs are most helpful to farmers to help them pursue eco-friendly practices and make a good living?.

  43. Profile photo of
    Davone Bounphasouk

    I am happy to a part of the course! the introduction is very interesting to me. looking forward to learn new things and share experiences to others.

  44. Profile photo of Moustafa SOWOU

    This is a wonderful initiative! I’m very glad to participate to this course. In fact, one of the biggest challenge today to reach a sustainable development is how to promote an energy smart agriculture!

  45. Profile photo of Rusirevi Jonathan

    Interesting thoughts cloffas and Bernard, i agree there is need to improve efficiency, the farming systems approach or model provide an easy in-depth analysis of the interconnectedness of the systems. From experience the demand for solar and biogas in the dairy subsector in Zimbabwe is high but the initial cost of establishment is still prohibitive while the private companies are still not really willing to manufacture appliances such as biorefrigerators .

  46. Profile photo of Baroness Bor

    Am happy I enrolled for the course, the introduction has given me deeper insights of the energy-food nexus especially in developing countries. I look forward for more.

  47. Profile photo of Joseph Kirule

    Reading through the materials given in this MOOC enlightens you on the massive challenge and opportunities ahead of us. The opportunities arise from the need to take the local context of the different regions. This also calls on to act locally as much as possible in order to create a positive global effect. For instance; in planning our interventions, let us look at the political, social, geographical, cultural, infrastructural context of whereever we happen to be located. When we do this, I believe there will be an organic coherence of sustainable Agro-energy systems moving from village, city, country, region and to a global scale.

  48. Profile photo of Lumies Bashir

    Very interesting start! the introduction is a great material and full on info.
    Thanks MOOC for this opportunity !!

  49. Profile photo of Kofi  Debrah

    I find the “Rebound Effect” most interesting. when reduction in energy demand results in lower energy prices which, in turn, encourage energy purchases in other areas.

  50. Profile photo of Muhumuza Albert

    actually am finding a lot in this course and ,it has already riminded me about the value chain channel thi is so great indeed

  51. Profile photo of Jonas Hernán Fleer

    Very good introduction. Gives participants the motiviation to continue Monday morning and seeing what’s next

  52. Profile photo of Macben Makenzi

    Great introduction! Starting on the content for Week 2.

  53. Profile photo of Innocent Azih

    Small innovation in energy solutions applied tonagriculture could help change the world a great deal. From increasing smallholder farmers productivity, to increasing the value-added and hence income remuneration, this could reduce global multiple challenges of poverty, malnutrition and environmental destruction through high emission production systems. A particularly important perspective is the amount of energy it will create in communities through social inclusion.
    It is true that businesses and enterprises are the key driver of sustainable innovation for the market, but making markets work for the poor or bottom-of-the pyramid occupiers will require smart policy and regulation that focus on lifting this group of consumers or economic actors toward the next upward level.
    Agriculture unarguably finds the most accessible nexus with energy if the poor will transit to this upward level within the shortest possible time, than another other opportunity for them. It is also a win-win for the rest of the society, because there will be increased economic productivytnfrom their aggregated energy.

    Innocent Azih

  54. Profile photo of DAVID MICHAEL TERUNGWA

    I joined this course late but i am catching up strong- In Nigeria and other sub- Saharan African countries Agriculture is practiced at subsistence level and does not consumed as much energy as do in the developed countries. This to me is an opportunity as Nigeria and other developing countries have realized the IT IS SOIL AND NOT SOIL THAT HOLDS THE KEY TO THE FUTURE are now promoting commercial and large scale agriculture. The approach and design should be tailored towards sustainable energy use

  55. Profile photo of Giok P CHUA

    Hi ALL…greetings from Singapore-Malaysia when I am
    For your consideration for the next few weeks to make Agri-Farming SEXY for all instead of the those born in the wrong place…and earns a miserable US$2 per day…when min wage is 5 time per hour!!
    Why do we need so much water footprints to grow crops ( eg Rice 5000 litres)?
    Why do we use so much Fertilizer to grow/
    Why are we have to water the plants daily-weekly…can we do ONCE/moth?
    Why do you need so much energy to grow 1kg of food
    Why are 1 Farmer suicide/min in the Farm land
    and…can we fix the problems?

  56. Profile photo of Daniele Batosti

    Interesting and very engaging course

  57. Profile photo of Debele Debela

    The course is interesting and I enjoyed with the topics of week 1. I am happy to attend the course aimed at utilization of efficient and sustainable energy to feed more people without creating another pressure on the planet.

  58. Profile photo of Debele Debela

    This time many people have shortage of food and/or have nothing to eat and depend on the support of food aid. Mostly the shortage of food was as a result of climate change (climate variability). I hope this will be reduced if we take care of our renewable resources and improve our renewable energy. The networking created by the MOOC and the course will give us good understanding of energy efficient food production or through out the food value chain.

  59. Profile photo of Wossenu Areda Weldekiros

    Great reading material! It passes powerful points on Energy and Agriculture Nexus starting from the root cause of the problem and forwarding a sustainable and clean options to address the issue.

  60. Profile photo of Muhumuza Albert

    Hello every one , please members vote for me by leaving comment or alike on this link http://blog.gfar.net/2016/02/20/yap-proposal-5-pig-feed-production-muhumuza-albert-uganda thank you

  61. Profile photo of Thulani Ncube

    interesting stuff. energy has a critical role in ensuring food security

  62. Profile photo of Chelimo Ketter Naomi

    A journey of 8 weeks begins with week one!!

  63. Profile photo of Ifedayo Adeoba

    Yes Naomi! It has been 8 weeks of so much learning. But am sure we are all better for it.

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