Additional Material

Introduction to the Energy-Agriculture Nexus

Alexandratos, N. and J. Bruinsma (2012): World agriculture towards 2030/2050: The 2012 revision. ESA Working Paper No. 12-03. Rome: Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. Available online at

Godfray, H.C.J., Beddington, J.R., Crute, I.R., Haddad, L., Lawrence, D., Muir, J.F., Pretty, J., Robinson, S., Thomas, S.M. and C. Toulmin (2010): Food Security: The Challenge of Feeding 9 Billion People. Science 327 (5967), pp. 812-818. (

Research Program on Climate Change, Agriculture and Food Security (CGIAR) (2016): Big Facts on Climate Change, Agriculture and Food Security. (

Renewable Energy Resources and Technology Overview

Cushion, E., Whiteman, A. and G. Dieterle (2010): Bioenergy Development: Issues and Impacts for Poverty and Natural Resource Management. The International Bank for Reconstruction and Development/The World Bank. Washington. (

GIZ (2014): Productive Use of Thermal Energy: An Overview of Technology Options and Approaches for Promotion. Eschborn. (

Green, G.M. and D. Schwarz (2001): Solar Drying Technology for Food Preservation. GTZ. Eschborn. (

Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) (2007): The Carbon Cycle and Climate System (Chapter 7.3). Climate Change 2007: Working Group I: the Physical Science Basis. Cambridge University Press. Cambridge/ New York. (

New, D. (2004): Intro to Hydro Power 1. In: Home Power 103. (

Powering Agriculture: An Energy Grand Challenge for Development (PAEGC) (2016): Solar-Powered Refrigeration for Dairy Farms. (

Schnitzer, V. (2009): Micro Hydro Power Scout Guide. GIZ. Eschborn. (

Sims, R., Flammini, M., Puri, M. and S. Bracco (2015): Opportunities for Agri-Food Chains to become Energy-Smart. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) and Powering Agriculture: An Energy Grand Challenge for Development (PAEGC). Rome. (

Stackhouse, P.W. (2016): Surface Meteorology and Solar Energy (SSE) Release 6.0. Atmospheric Science Data Center of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). (

U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) and Natural Resources Conservation Service (NRCS) (2010): Design of Small Photovoltaic (PV) Solar-Powered Water Pump Systems. In: Technical Note 28. Portland. (

U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) (2009): Chapter Two: What is Bioenergy?. In: State Bioenergy Primer. EPA. Washington. (

Utz, V. (2011): Modern Energy Services for Modern Agriculture: A Review of Smallholder Farming in Developing Countries. GIZ HERA Poverty-oriented Basic Energy Services. (

Introduction to Biogas

American Biogas Council (n.d.): Food Waste. (

Balsam, J. (2006): Anaerobic Digestion of Animal Wastes: Factors to Consider. ATTRA – National Center for Appropriate Technology (NCAT). Butte. (

Biomass Energy Centre (2011): Biomass Energy Centre – Energy Crops. (

Center for Climate and Energy Solutions (2011): Cogeneration/Combined Heat and Power (CHP). (

EDUCOGEN (2001): A Guide to Cogeneration. The European Association for the Promotion of Cogeneration. Brussels. (

International Fund for Agricultural Development (IFAD) (2012): Flexi Biogas Systems: inexpensive, renewable energy for developing countries. Rome. (

Tilley, E., Ulrich, L., Luethi, C., Reymond, P. and C. Zurbruegg (2014): UASB Reactor: Sustainable Sanitation and Water Management. Basel. (

U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and Combined Heat and Power Partnership (CHP) (2007): Biomass Combined Heat and Power Catalog of Technologies. (

United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) (2008): Fort Lewis College brain power targets quality of life in Ecuador. EPA Region 8.

United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) (2015): Overview of Greenhouse Gases. Washington. (

World Bioenergy Association (2013): Biogas – an important renewable energy source. Press Release. Stockholm. (


Sorrell, S. (2007): The Rebound Effect: an assessment of the evidence for economy-wide energy savings from improved energy efficiency. UK Energy Research Centre. London. (

Energy Efficiency – Global Dimension

International Energy Agency (IEA) (2011): 25 Energy Efficiency Policy Recommendations. Paris. (

International Energy Agency (IEA) (2014a): Capturing the Multiple Benefits of Energy Efficiency. Paris. (

International Energy Agency (IEA) (2014b): World Energy Outlook 2014. Paris. (

International Energy Agency (IEA) (2015a): Accelerating Energy Efficiency in Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises. Paris. (

International Energy Agency (IEA) (2015b): Energy and Climate Change. World Energy Outlook Special Report. Paris. (

International Energy Agency (IEA) (2015c): Energy Efficiency Market Report. Paris. (

International Energy Agency (IEA) (2015d): World Energy Outlook 2015. Paris. (

McLean-Conner, P. (2009): Energy Efficiency: Principles and Practices.

Sioshansi, F. P. (2013): Energy Efficiency: Towards the End of Demand Growth. In: Energy Technology: Generation, Conversion, Storage, Distribution 2 (6), pp. 509-580. John Wiley & Sons VCH. New Jersey.

Energy Auditing

Muazu, A., Yahya, A., Ishak, W. and S. Khairunniza-Bejo (2015): Energy audit for sustainable wetland paddy cultivation in Malaysia. In: Energy 87, pp. 182-191. (

Pardo, M., Manzano, J., Cabrera, E. and J. Garcia-Serra (2013): Energy audit of irrigation networks, Biosystems Engineering 115 (1), pp. 89-101. (

Energy Efficiency in Agriculture Value Chains

Agarwal, B. (1986): Cold hearths and barren slopes: the wood fuel crisis in the third world. The Riverdale Company. Riverdale.

Azuela, G. E. and L.A. Barroso (2012): Design and performance of policy instruments to promote the development of renewable energy: emerging experience in selected developing countries. World Bank Publications. Washington. (

Cabraal, R.A., Barnes, D.F. and S.G. Agarwal (2005): Productive Uses of Energy for Rural Development. In: Annu. Rev. Environ. Resour. 30, pp. 117-144. (

Cabré, M., Lopez-Peña, A., Kieffer, G., Khalid, A. and R. Ferroukhi (2015): Renewable Energy Policy Brief: Mexico. IRENA. Abu Dhabi. (

Curran, M.A. (2012): Life Cycle Assessment Handbook: A Guide for Environmentally Sustainable Products. Wiley-Scrivener. Massachusetts. (See Page 181 for Agri-Food Chain Examples)

Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) (2016): Investment Learning Platform (ILP): Financial and Economic Analysis. (

GIZ (2012): Legal Frameworks for Renewable Energy: Policy Analysis for 15 Developing and Emerging Countries. Bonn/Eschborn. (

International Renewable Energy Agency (IRENA) (2015): Off-grid renewable energy systems: Status and methodological issues. Working paper. (

Jacob, K., Quitzow R. and H. Bar (2015): Green Jobs: Impacts of a Green Economy on Employment. GIZ. Bonn/Eschborn. (

Kartha, S., and G. Leach (2001): Using modern bioenergy to reduce rural poverty. Report to the Shell Foundation. Stockholm Environment Institute. (

Khan, S. and Hanjra, M.A. (2009): Footprints of water and energy inputs in food production – Global perspectives. In: Food Policy 34 (2), pp. 130-140. (

Mirzabaev, A., Guta, D., Goedecke, J., Gaur, V., Börner, J., Virchow, D., Denich, M. and J. von Braun, J (2014): Bioenergy, Food Security and Poverty Reduction: Mitigating Tradeoffs and Promoting Synergies Along the Water-Energy-Food Security Nexus. In: ZEF Working Paper Series 135. Bonn. (

Stegen, K.S. and M. Seel (2013): The winds of change: How wind firms assess Germany’s energy transition. In: Energy Policy 61, pp. 1481-1489. (

Stout, B. A. (2012): Handbook of energy for world agriculture. Elsevier. Essex.

The International Renewable Energy Agency (IRENA) (2016): Renewable Energy Benefits: Measuring the Economics. Masdar. Abu Dhabi. (

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