resources

UNU-INWEH is continuously in the act of compiling a database consisting of case studies, research publications, reports, policy-briefs, websites and other documents focused on the work and development of drylands and dryland management. This assiduous approach combines several disciplinary perspectives, and is intended for public usage: Go to database

Production losses
Bishop, J. and Allen, J., 1989. The on-site cost of soil erosion in Mali. Environment Working Paper No. 21. The World Bank, Washington D.C. >Link

Alfsen, K.H., De Franco, M.A., Glomsrød, S. and Johnsen, T., 1996. The cost of soil erosion in Nicaragua. Ecological Economics. 16(2): 129-145. > Link

Hedonic pricing
King, D.A. and Sinden, J.A., 1988. Influence of soil conservation on farm land values. Land Economics. 64(3): 242-255. Link

Travel cost method
Navrud, S. and Mungatana, E.D. Environmental valuation in developing countries: The recreational value of wildlife viewing. Ecological Economics. 11: 135-151  Link 

Blamey, J., Rolfe, J., Bennett, J. and Morrison M. 2000. Valuing remnant vegetation in Central Queensland using choice modelling. The Australian Journal of Agriculture and Resource Economics. 44(3): 439-456.

Simple cost-benefit analysis
De Groot, R.S., J. Blignaut, S. Van Der Ploeg, J. Aronson, T. Elmqvist, and J. Farley. 2013. "Benefits of Investing in Ecosystem Restoration." Conservation Biology 27:1286-1293.

A bit more advanced
Birol, E., P. Koundouri and Y. Kountouris (2010). "Assessing the economic viability of alternative water resources in water-scarce regions: Combining economic valuation, cost-benefit analysis and discounting." Ecological Economics 69(4): 839-847.

Additional Literature (Available free of charge)

Ecosystem services
Costanza, R., R. D'arge, R. de Groot, S. Farber, M. Grasso, B. Hannon, K. Limburg, S. Naeem, R. V. O'Neill, J. Paruelo, R. G. Raskin, P. Sutton and M. van den Belt (1997). "The value of the world's ecosystem services and natural capital." Abstract: Nature 387: 253 – 260

Identifying and valuing externalities
Schaafsma, M. and G. Cranston (2013). The Cambridge Natural Capital Leaders Platform: E.Valu.A.Te Practical Guide, How to Perform an Environmental Externality Assessment,
http://www.cpsl.cam.ac.uk/Business-Platforms/~/media/Files/Business_Platforms/Natural_Capital/EValuATe_Practical_Guide_Nov_2013.ashx

Production losses
Bishop, J. and Allen, J., 1989. The on-site cost of soil erosion in Mali. Environment Working Paper No. 21. The World Bank, Washington D.C.
The on-site cost of soil erosion in Mali

Contingent Valuation method
Ngugi, G.W., Newton, L.E. and Muasya, A.M., 2011. The contribution of forest products to dryland household economy: The case of Kiang’ombe hill forest, Kenya. Ethnobotany Research and Applications. 9: 163-180.

Choice experiment
Do, T.N., 2007. Impacts of dykes on wetland values in Vietnam’s Mekong River Delta: A case study in the Plain of Reeds (PhD Thesis). Economy and Environment Program for Southeast Asia, Singapore.

Choice Experiments in Developing Countries 
Christie, M., I. Fazey, R. Cooper, T. Hyde, A. Deri, L. Hughes, G. Bush, L. Brander, A. Nahman, W. de Lange and B. Reyers (2008). An Evaluation of Economic and Non-economic Techniques for Assessing the Importance of Biodiversity to People in Developing Countries. Final report to Defra: 118. 

Online-Glossary on Key Terms in Economics of Land Degradation: Glossary

Talking about. Annotated Glossary on Combating Desertification and Sustainable Land Management from the GIZ (2011): Annotated-Glossary. pdf

ELD Initiative (2013). The rewards of investing in sustainable land management. Interim Report for the Economics of Land Degradation Initiative: A global strategy for sustainable land management. Thomas, R.J., Quillérou, E., Stewart, N. (Coordinators and Eds.), 124pp. Available at: www.eld-initiative.org/ or http://inweh.unu.edu/reports/ [17 September 2013] This report provides a good complement to this course. It details selected case studies and the general background for the initiative and briefly reviews the methods detailed in this course.

The course is based on the UNU-INWEH's Script "The Economics of Land Degradation. Principles of economic analysis and valuation for sustainable management of land" prepared by Dr Emmanuelle Quillérou and been reviewed by Dr Richard Thomas.

For your convenience, we have linked some of the articles mentioned in the script: 

Perman, R., Ma, Y., Common, M., Maddison, D., Mcgilvray, J. (2011) Natural Resource and Environmental Economics, 4th Edition. Pearson Education. 712p.

This textbook is written as an introductory textbook and covers all the material described in this unit. It contains clear text descriptions as well as illustrative graphs and mathematical equations. The companion website also provides example files. Depending on your own proficiency in maths you may find other textbooks more suited to your needs but this textbook should constitute a good starting point.

ELD Initiative (2013). The rewards of investing in sustainable land management. Interim Report for the Economics of Land Degradation Initiative: A global strategy for sustainable land management.  Thomas, R.J., Quillérou, E., Stewart, N. (Coordinators and Eds.), 124pp. http://www.eld-initiative.org/ or http://inweh.unu.edu/reports/ [17 September 2013]

This report provides a good complement to this course. It details selected case studies and the general background for the initiative and briefly reviews the methods detailed in this course.

Section 1
Pagiola, S., von Ritter, K., Bishop, J. (2004). Section 1 Introduction & Section 2 Ecosystems and the services they provide. In: How much is an ecosystem worth? Assessing the Economic Value of Ecosystem Conservation. In collaboration with The Nature Conservancy and IUCN - The World Conservation Union (Ed.). The World Bank Environment Department paper, pp. 1-8. Available from: http://www.cbd.int/doc/case-studies/inc/cs-inc-iucn-nc-wb-en.pdf [22 November 2011]

The first part of this report outlines the key questions an economic analysis can help answer to complement other disciplinary perspectives.

Perman, R., Ma, Y., Common, M., Maddison, D., Mcgilvray, J. (2011) Chapter 2: The origins of the Sustainability Problem. In: Natural Resource and Environmental Economics, 4th Edition. Pearson Education, pp. 16-58.

This chapter provides an overview of the discussion on why we as a society should aim for sustainability.

Perman, R., Ma, Y., Common, M., Maddison, D., Mcgilvray, J. (2011) Chapter 3: Ethics, Economics and the Environment. In: Natural Resource and Environmental Economics, 4th Edition. Pearson Education, pp. 59-91.

This chapter provides an overview of utilititarism, that is the economic perspective adopted in this unit, and its consequences for the definition of sustainability.

Shanahan, M. (2008) Entangled in the web of life: biodiversity and the media. IIED Briefing Papers, May 2008, 4pp. Available from: http://pubs.iied.org/pdfs/17037IIED.pdf [01 May 2012]

This briefing paper details some ecosystem services provides by nature and outlines the importance of using a communication language relevant to the target audience to trigger effective management.

Section 2
Pagiola, S., von Ritter, K., Bishop, J. (2004). Section 3 Valuing ecosystem services. In: How much is an ecosystem worth? Assessing the Economic Value of Ecosystem Conservation. In collaboration with The Nature Conservancy and IUCN - The World Conservation Union (Ed.). The World Bank Environment Department paper, pp. 9-12. Available from: http://www.cbd.int/doc/case-studies/inc/cs-inc-iucn-nc-wb-en.pdf [22 November 2011]

The second part of this report briefly describes methods available to decision-makers for environmental valuation.

Perman, R., Ma, Y., Common, M., Maddison, D., Mcgilvray, J. (2011) Chapter 4: Welfare economics and the Environment. In: Natural Resource and Environmental Economics, 4th Edition. Pearson Education, pp. 92-136.

This chapter provides an overview of the economics tools for analysis of environmental change. It describes the conditions for efficient allocation, how a market system would deliver this efficient allocation and why allocation is not always efficient as the rationale for government intervention through public policy-making. In particular, it details the key problems of externalities and market failure arising in relation to the environment.

Perman, R., Ma, Y., Common, M., Maddison, D., Mcgilvray, J. (2011) Chapter 12: Valuing the environment. In: Natural Resource and Environmental Economics, 4th Edition. Pearson Education, pp. 411-454.
This chapter details the total economic value framework, the concepts of willingness to pay and to accept, compensating surplus and equivalent surplus. It explains how to use different methods to conduct environmental valuation.

Section 3

Pagiola, S., von Ritter, K., Bishop, J. (2004). Section 3 Valuing ecosystem services. In: How much is an ecosystem worth? Assessing the Economic Value of Ecosystem Conservation. In collaboration with The Nature Conservancy and IUCN - The World Conservation Union (Ed.). The World Bank Environment Department paper, pp. 13-33. Available from: http://www.cbd.int/doc/case-studies/inc/cs-inc-iucn-nc-wb-en.pdf [22 November 2011]
The last part of this report outlines general principles of cost-benefit analysis and potential scenarios to be considered for assessment.

Perman, R., Ma, Y., Common, M., Maddison, D., Mcgilvray, J. (2011) Chapter 11: Cost-Benefit Analysis. In: Natural Resource and Environmental Economics, 4th Edition. Pearson Education, pp. 367-410.

This chapter details the economic principles behind cost-benefit analysis. It outlines the impact of the timing of costs and benefits on decisions made.

Perman, R., Ma, Y., Common, M., Maddison, D., Mcgilvray, J. (2011) Chapter 13: Irreversibility, risk and Uncertainty. In: Natural Resource and Environmental Economics, 4th Edition. Pearson Education, pp. 455-481.

This chapter explains the difference between risk and uncertainty and their consequences for decision-making at the individual and the society levels.